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Terriers de pequeno porte
Raça/Origem Nome Original Foto Criadores
Jack Russell Terrier

Jack Russell Terrier 
Jack Russell Terrier
Smooth Coat Jack Russell Terrier
Alternative names
Fox Terrier
Country of origin
Common nicknames
Classification and breed standards
FCI: Group 3 Section 1 #345 Stds
ANKC: Group 2 (Terriers) Stds
NZKC: Terrier Stds
UKC: Terriers Stds
The Jack Russell Terrier is often considered synonomous with the Parson Russell Terrier.

The Jack Russell Terrier is a type (or landrace) of small, principally white-bodied, smooth or rough-coated terrier that has its origins in fox hunting. The name "Jack Russell" has been used to describe a wide array of small white terriers, but is now most commonly used to describe a working terrier. The Jack Russell Terrier is commonly confused for the Parson Russell Terrier or Russell Terrier, which are very similar to the Jack Russell.


  • 1 General appearance
  • 2 Temperament
  • 3 Health
  • 4 History
  • 5 The breed's purpose and its relation to the standard
  • 6 Miscellaneous
    • 6.1 Jack Russells on screen and in literature
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links
  • 9 See also
    • 9.1 Clubs & Associations
    • 9.2 Similar Breeds

[edit] General appearance

A rough-coat JRT.
A rough-coat JRT.

As a working terrier, the Jack Russell's most important physical attribute is not coat color, gait or expression, but chest size, which must not be so large that it prevents the dog from entering and working in burrows.

The red fox is the traditional quarry of the Jack Russell Terrier, and the quarry pursued by the Reverend John Russell himself. Red fox may den in a wide variety of locations from old badger setts, rabbit holes and groundhog dens to drain-pipes and building crawl-spaces ? but in all cases the working Jack Russell must be small enough to get up to its quarry, which is to say a Jack Russell's chest should be no larger than that of the animal it is pursuing. Red foxes vary in size, but across the world they average about 14 pounds in weight and have a chest size, on average of 12-14 inches in circumference when measured at the widest part of the chest. As Barry Jones, the founding Chairman of the National Working Terrier Federation noted in comments[1] directed to those in the UK who were intent on pulling the Jack Russell Terrier into The Kennel Club as a Parson Russell Terrier:

The chest is, without doubt, the determining factor as to whether a terrier may follow its intended quarry underground. Too large and he/she is of little use for underground work, for no matter how determined the terrier may be, this physical setback will not be overcome in the nearly-tight situations it will encounter in working foxes. It may be thought the fox is a large animal - to the casual observer it would appear so. However, the bone structure of the fox is finer than that of a terrier, plus it has a loose-fitting, profuse pelt which lends itself to flexibility. I have not encountered a fox which could not be spanned at 14 inches circumference - this within a weight range of 10 lbs to 24 lbs, on average 300 foxes spanned a year. You may not wish to work your terrier. However, there is a Standard to be attained, and spannability is a must in the Parson Russell Terrier.

Jack Russell Terriers are predominantly white (more than 51%) with black, tan, or tricolor markings commonly found on the face and at the base of the tail. The skin and the undercoat to show a pattern of small black or brown spots, or freckles, that do not carry through to the outer coat.

Jack Russell Terriers have small V-shaped ears that should fold downward, and strong teeth with a scissor bite.

JRT puppy at 8 weeks.
JRT puppy at 8 weeks.

Jack Russell Terriers come in three coat types: smooth, broken, and rough. In all cases, the coat should be dense and not soft, feathery or linty. A smooth coated dog should be smooth coated all over, with a dense topcoat that is approximately 1 cm long. A rough-coated dog should have a double coat with fur as much as 10 cm long, and should be rough-coated over its entire body. A broken-coated dog is any dog with a topcoat of intermediate length, or a dog that is largely or partially smooth with longer hair on some parts of its body.

Jack Russell Terrier tails are straight, held high and upright. Traditionally, tails are docked to around five inches -- the length of a hand grip. It is not a serious fault to leave a tail a little long, but too short a tail creates a less useful dog in the field and a dog that looks poorly balanced.

Many dogs commonly referred to as "Jack Russells" have crooked or ?benched? legs, resembling Queen Anne furniture. This is often a sign of Achondroplasia, and is a fault according to the breed standard.[2] A Jack Russell's forelegs should be strong and straight boned with joints in correct alignment, elbows hanging perpendicular to the body and working free of the sides. Hindquarters should be strong and muscular, well put together with good angulation and bend of stifle, giving plenty of drive and propulsion. Looking from behind, the hocks must be straight. Generally, a JRT should have a square appearance, with the body length in proportion to the height.

[edit] Temperament

Jack Russells make excellent pets for the right owners.
Jack Russells make excellent pets for the right owners.

The Jack Russell has traditionally been a "working terrier." Terrier work required a dog that barked at prey so that the dog could be located underground and be dug out if necessary; because of this, Jack Russell Terriers were bred to be very vocal dogs, and excellent diggers.

Jack Russell Terriers are also very intelligent, protective, fearless, high-energy dogs ? requirements of a working dog which must problem-solve in the field and work tirelessly against often formidable quarry.

Due to this and their compact size, Jack Russells have a loyal and growing following among dog owners. However, prospective buyers should be aware that they are not for everyone. They also have a sense of independence that is stronger than can be found in most dog breeds, and although they are small, they are sometimes ?lap dogs? ? they are dogs that require a firm hand, a lot of attention, and regular - even frequent - exercise to maintain both their physical and emotional well-being.

JRTs can have an exuberant personality.
JRTs can have an exuberant personality.
Jack Russell Terriers are very playful.
Jack Russell Terriers are very playful.

Jack Russells that are not trained and exercised regularly may exhibit unmanageable behaviour, including excessive barking, escaping from the yard, or digging in unwanted places inside and outside the house. In America, several Jack Russell rescue networks have to work constantly to find temporary and permanent homes for Jack Russell Terriers whose owners typically were not aware that Jack Russells are not "docile" dogs and could not meet these requirements. Prospective Jack Russell Terrier owners are advised to be responsible.

Most Jack Russell Terriers get along well with children so long as they are introduced carefully, but they are extremely protective of their territory and have no tolerance of even unintentional abuse. Most are outgoing and friendly towards other dogs (again, territorial invasions notwithstanding), but a good number show same-sex aggression issues, especially the males. JRTs are also known for a "Napoleon complex" regarding larger canines that can get them into dangerous situations. Their fearlessness often scares off a larger animal, but their apparent unawareness of their small size can lead to a lopsided fight with larger dogs if not kept in check.

It is not uncommon for a Jack Russell terrier to be cat-aggressive (although they have been known to get along with them over time in the same house) and homes with other small fur-bearing animals in them (pet hamsters, rabbits, etc) would do well to think through the ramifications of bringing a JRT into the house as their hunting instincts are strong.

[edit] Health

Jack Russell terriers are known for good longevity and health due to a healthy gene pool and lack of in-breeding when compared to some Kennel Club 'show dog' breeds. A well-cared-for Jack Russell can live well into its teens. Jacks usually live for between 11 and 18 years. Health concerns with the breed include hereditary cataracts, primary lens luxation, congenital deafness, medial patellar luxation, cerebellar ataxia, Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease, myasthenia gravis, atopy, general joint problems, and von Willebrand's disease. Responsible breeders will have their puppies BAER tested for hearing before sale (this test is good for the life of the dog). Prospective dams and sires should be CERF tested and OFA inspected before breeding in order to reduce the chance of passing on congenital eye or joint problems. Prospective puppy buyers are encouraged to avoid dogs sired or whelped by dogs under two years of age as congenital problems in the sire or dam may not yet have expressed themselves.

[edit] History

JRT adolescent at 6 months.
JRT adolescent at 6 months.

Small white fox-working terriers were bred by the Reverend John Russell, a parson and hunting enthusiast born in 1795. In his last year of university at Oxford he bought a small white and tan terrier bitch called Trump from the milk man. Trump was purchased based upon appearance alone. (Burns, 2005) She was the basis for a breeding program to develop a terrier with high stamina for the hunt as well as the courage and formation to chase out foxes that had gone to ground, but without the aggressiveness that would result in physical harm to the fox, which would have ended the chase, and so was considered unsporting. The line of terriers developed by John Russell was well respected for these qualities and his dogs were often taken on by hunt enthusiasts. It is unlikely, however, that any dogs alive today are descended from Trump, as Russell was forced to sell all of his dogs on more than one occasion because of financial difficulty, and had only four aged (and non-breeding) terriers left when he died in 1883. (Burns, 2005)

The only painting that exists of Trump was painted more than 40 years after the dog died, and it was painted by someone that had never seen the original animal at all. Russell said the painting was "a good likeness" but in fact he may have been trying to be polite, as the painting was commissioned by Edward VII (then Prince of Wales) who befriended Russell in his old age, and had the painting done as an homage to the old man. (Burns, 2005)

On the day that the impoverished Rev. John Russell died, his old sermons and other papers were found blowing around in the farm yard. Little or no written record of Rev. John Russell survives to the present day.

While it is often stated that Trump was "14 inches tall and weighed 14 pounds," there is no source for this statement, and it appears to have been penned by someone who had never met Russell and had only seen the painting of Trump (to which there is nothing to suggest scale). (Burns, 2005)

While Trump's appearance is murky, and her size a complete mystery, the fox dens of Devon, England, where John Russell once hunted, are well known. Terrierman Eddie Chapman, who has hunted those same Devon earths for more than 30 years, notes that "I can state categorically that if given the choice, ninety-nine percent of hunt terrier men would buy an under 12" worker, if it was available, over a 14" one." (Chapman, 1994). To this day most working terrier enthusiast seem to prefer a dog around 12 inches tall and with a chest span of around 14".

A working Jack Russell Terrier exits a den pipe.
A working Jack Russell Terrier exits a den pipe.

[edit] The breed's purpose and its relation to the standard

The Reverend Jack Russell did not have Jack Russell terriers ? he had white-bodied fox-working dogs that, in his day, were simply called ?fox terriers.?

The term ?Jack Russell Terrier? was coined after the Reverend John Russell was dead, and was used to differentiate small working terriers from over-large non-working Fox Terriers that by 1900 dominated the Kennel Club show ring and bench.

Tri-Colour JRT.
Tri-Colour JRT.

Today, the term "Jack Russell Terrier" is used to describe a wide array of dogs. Though there is a difference of opinion as to what is a ?true? Jack Russell Terrier, it is revealing that the Reverend John Russell himself, never registered his own dogs with the Kennel Club and described his own dogs as being very different from those found on the show ring bench: "True terriers [my dogs] were, but differing from the present show dogs as the wild eglantine differs from a garden rose."

The simplest way to think about Jack Russell Terriers is to divide the entire lot of them into two groups as John Russell himself did: Those that actually work in the field, underground, to formidable quarry (what Russell himself valued), and all the rest -- pets and show dogs alike.

Such a simple demarcation stood for more than 100 years, but ended in 1990 when The Kennel Club (UK) decided to add the Parson Russell Terrier to its rolls. The American Kennel Club followed suit in 2001, as did the United Kennel Club that same year.

Female Jack Russell with one ear up, and the other down.
Female Jack Russell with one ear up, and the other down.

While working terrier enthusiasts, such as John Russell, are principally concerned about function and do not much care about the color of a dog?s nose or the lay of its ear, the show ring breeder is principally concerned about form. In order to ensure that the value of show dogs is maintained and a sense of exclusivity and ?purity? is maintained, Kennel Club registries are generally closed, and firm physical standards are crafted with the idea of minimizing the differences between breed members. The primary goal of a Kennel Club registry is ?conformation? (hence the term ?conformation show?) and the working abilities of a dog take a second slot, if they are considered at all.

There are a wide variety of Kennel Clubs, each with competing registries and names for dogs claiming descent from the dogs of the Reverend John Russell. Some registries put no value on work at all, some value working dogs above all others, and some are largely conformation registries, but which give a small nod to the working side of the dogs in question.

Broken coated non-conforming Russell Terrier with prick ears
Broken coated non-conforming Russell Terrier with prick ears
  • The Jack Russell Terrier Club of America is the largest Jack Russell Terrier registry in the world. It is not a Kennel Club, but a breed specific-organization that organizes ?trials? which pair conformation shows with performance events such as earthdog and agility trials. The JRTCA actively promotes a working terrier, and its highest award is reserved for working dogs. The JRTCA breed standard recognizes Jack Russells as being from 10 to 15 inches (25 to 38 cm) at the withers, with a body length approximately equal to height. The JRTCA has an open registry, and does not register entire litters, but individual dogs at the age of one year of age and after photo and veterinary inspection. JRTCA breed records indicate the size of every dog in their registry (useful for breeding dogs of the correct size) and whether those dogs have successfully worked quarry (fox, badger, raccoon, groundhog or opossum) under a JRTCA-certified field judge in a natural hunting situation.
  • The Federation Cynologique Internationale or FCI, based in Belgium, added a small white dog to their rolls in the year 2000. This dog is called a "Jack Russell Terrier" by the FCI, but the breed is described as being "developed" in Australia?a country the Reverend John Russell never visited. In 2001 and 2002, the United Kennel Club and American Kennel Club adopted the same breed standard (first created in Australia by the Australian National Kennel Council in 1990) for a dog they describe as a Russell Terrier. The breed standard calls for principally white-bodied terrier 10" to 12" tall at the withers with a distinctly different silhouette than the working Jack Russell terrier or Parson Russell Terrier. These dogs are sometimes referred to as an Australian Jack Russell Terrier. The FCI is not a registry and does not issue pedigrees -- it is a collection of national canine societies. Neither The Kennel Club (UK) nor the American Kennel Club are affiliated members of the FCI.

Many working dog breeds are not officially registered with any kennel club or breed registry. The Jack Russell Terrier is one of those breeds where many parents and offspring may not be "papered" but are still part of the breed. Not being registered in a breed registy does not make a dog any less a representative of its breed. Many working breeds are moving away from the "purebred" notion and instead are breeding for phenotype, not genotype, which will help prevent the working dog populations from acquiring genetic diseases such as we've seen in the last century with "pure" breeds.

As working dogs depend on health, ability, and temperment to be successful, it is important to breed for those characteristics and allow a lot of variability within the breed. A continuing loss of genetic diversity (such as has been seen in most modern "purebreds" because of their closed gene pools) leads to less healthy, less resistant animals that are less able to do their jobs.

[edit] Miscellaneous

On April 29th, 2007, a Jack Russell named George saved five children in New Zealand from an attack by two pit bulls. He was reported to have charged at them and held them at bay long enough for the kids to get away. He had to be put down due to injuries and was posthumously awarded a medal of bravery, normally reserved for humans, by the SPCA.[3] A former US Marine also donated a Purple Heart award he received for service in Vietnam to George's owner. [4]

[edit] Jack Russells on screen and in literature

Moose as Eddie Crane on Frasier.
Moose as Eddie Crane on Frasier.

The Jack Russell's endearing facial expressions, feisty personality, and cuteness make it a natural choice for television and the cinema. The famous RCA symbol of a white dog peering into an RCA Victrola was a JRT. Wishbone, the title character of an extremely popular and award-winning children's television series in the United States, is perhaps the most famous of Jack Russell Terriers. Wishbone was played by the late Soccer who died in June 2001 at 13 years old.

Other famous Jack Russell Terriers include Milo from the hit movie The Mask, and Eddie, the clever, irrepressible dog belonging to character Martin Crane on the sitcom Frasier. Eddie was played by Moose, who died in July 2006. Moose's son Enzo stepped in for the more physically demanding tricks as Moose aged, and Moose and Enzo also appeared in the movie My Dog Skip. Commandant Spangler on the FOX sitcom Malcolm In The Middle had a Jack Russell Terrier, but it was eaten alive by the character Francis's snake. Big Ben's dog "Nippy" in Problem Child 2 was a Jack Russell.

In the UK, one of the most recognisable canine stars was restaurateur and chef Rick Stein's irrepressible terrier Chalky, who frequently upstaged his owner on his various cookery series - indeed, many feel Chalky is the more famous of the pair! He was unique in having his own line of merchandise, including plushes, teatowels, art prints, art paw prints and even his own real ale - Chalky's Bite. He earned a BBC obituary when he died in 2007.[5]

The character of the wizard Ron Weasley in the popular Harry Potter book and movie series has a Jack Russell Terrier as his patronus charm. The patronus is an insubstantial animal-form protector created by the advanced Patronus Charm spell, and one way to defend against Dementors and certain other dark creatures.[citation needed]

A Jack Russell Terrier is also briefly seen in the movie Crimson Tide, in which it is referred to as the "Smartest Breed."

In the Francophonic Belgian novel Thank You for The Delicious Coke, the heroine Murielle Fried's closest companion is Matisse, who in a plot surprise, is revealed to actually be her Jack Russell Terrier.

Ernest P. Worrell owned a Jack Russell Terrier named Rimshot.

Tillamook Cheddar, a Jack Russell Terrier from Brooklyn, New York, is among the world's most renowned animal artists. She has appeared on Late Night with Conan O'Brien (on which she demonstrated her painting technique), as well as in a short film, Tillie Goes BUST!.

[edit] References

  1. ^ http://terriermandotcom.blogspot.com/2007/08/parson-russells-potted-histories-potted.html The Real Jack Russell Terrier: A Complete History
  2. ^ http://terrier.com/jrtca/standard.php3 Jack Russell Terrier Club Breed Standard.
  3. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20070508/od_afp/nzealandanimalsoffbeat
  4. ^ Medals for brave jack russell terrier | NATIONAL | NEWS | tvnz.co.nz
  5. ^ BBC NEWS | England | Cornwall | Celebrity chef Stein's dog dies
  • Burns, Patrick. American Working Terriers, 2005. ISBN 1-4116-6082-X [1]
  • Chapman, Eddie. "The Working Jack Russell Terrier," 1994. No ISBN [2]
  • Lucas, Capt. Jocelyn M. "Hunt and Working Terriers", 1931. UK.[3]
  • Russell, Dan. "Jack Russell and His Terriers." 1990. ISBN 978-0-851-31276-7 [4]

[edit] External links

  • Jack Russell Terrier Clubs
    • Jack Russell Terrier Club of America
    • Jack Russell Terrier Club Great Britain
    • Jack Russell Terrier Club of Canada
    • Jack Russell Terrier Club of Great Britain - Suomi-Finland
    • English Jack Russell Terrier Club Alliance
  • Other Links
    • A Pictorial History of Working Terriers
    • Jack Russell Terrier Breed Standard
    • Terrier Work Basics
    • Information on the Jack Russell
    • A comprehensive resource of Jack Russell information
    • Jack Russell Rescue Australia, the only Jack Russell Terrier Rescue group in Australia
    • Learn about Jack Russells' Temperament
    • Jack Russell Terrier Pictures & Info

[edit] See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Jack Russell (dog breeder)
  • Fox hunting
  • Working terriers

[edit] Clubs & Associations

  • American Working Terrier Association
  • Jack Russell Terrier Club of America

[edit] Similar Breeds

  • Parson Russell Terrier
  • Russell Terrier (slightly longer than tall Russell)
  • Fox terrier
  • Rat terrier
  • IrishJacks
  • Mini Parsons
  • American Jack Russell Terrier
  • Atlas terriers
  • Blue Eyed Jacks
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Russell_Terrier"

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